Built in the old urban center, the first information about it dates back to the year 547 when Bishop Felice - as a sign of votive gratitude - named it after Saint Martin Bishop of Tours. Of the original early medieval church there are still some fragments of stones with decorative motifs woven in wicker (secc. IX-X), already used as a restoration material, found during the restoration after the earthquake of 1936. Of its fourteenth-century altars remain the so-called ark of the Azzoni, walled inside the bell tower, and that of the Avoscano, which now serves as a table at the altar of the crypt.
In 1471 a fortuitous fire forced to rebuild the cathedral, which before had the facade facing the Piave. The new cathedral was built from 1517, designed by Tullio Lombardo, and was gradually enriched throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by the bishops who followed the leadership of the Belluno church.
In 1732 the Baroque bell tower was built, designed by Filippo Juvarra and has been a minor basilica since 1980.
Inside there are numerous works by important artists such as Cesare Vecellio, Andrea Meldolla known as Schiavone, Jacopo Da Ponte, Andrea Brustolon, Gaspare Diziani and others.